1. General information
Note 1.1 Corporate information
KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. (“the Parent Entity”, “the Company”) with its registered office in Lubin at 48 M.Skłodowskiej-Curie Street is a joint stock company registered at the Regional Court for Wrocław Fabryczna, Section IX (Economic) of the National Court Register, entry no. KRS 23302, on the territory of the Republic of Poland.
KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. has a multi-divisional organisational structure, comprised of a Head Office and 10 divisions:
3 mines (Lubin Mine Division, Polkowice-Sieroszowice Mine Division, Rudna Mine Division), 3 metallurgical plants (Głogów Smelter/Refinery, Legnica Smelter/Refinery, Cedynia Wire Rod Division), the Concentrator Division, the Tailings Division, the Mine-Smelter Emergency Rescue Division and the Data Center Division.
The shares of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. are listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange.
The Parent Entity’s principal activities include:
- the mining of copper and non-ferrous metals ores; and
- the production of copper, precious and non-ferrous metals.
In addition, the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group (“the Group”) conducts other activities, which are described in the Management Board’s Report on the activities of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. and of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group in 2018 (appendix 4).
The consolidated financial statements were prepared under the assumption that the Group’s companies will continue as a going concern during a period of at least 12 months from the end of the reporting period in an unaltered form and business scope, and there are no reasons to suspect any intentional or forced discontinuation or significant limitation of its current activities. As at the date of signing of the consolidated financial statements the Management Board of the Parent Entity is not aware of any facts or circumstances that may cast doubt about the going concern in the foreseeable future.
The KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group carries out exploration and the mining of copper, nickel and precious metals based on concessions given for the Polish deposits to KGHM Polska Miedź S.A., and also based on legal titles held by KGHM INTERNATIONAL LTD. and KGHM AJAX MINING INC. for the exploration for and mining of these resources in the USA, Canada, and Chile. Detailed information is presented in the Management Board’s report on the activities of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A and of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group in 2018 (point 2.4).
In 2018, the Parent Entity of the Group consolidated 75 subsidiaries and used the equity method to account for the shares of two joint ventures (Sierra Gorda S.C.M. and NANO CARBON Sp. z o.o.).
Declaration by the Management Board on the accuracy of the prepared financial statements
The Management Board of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. declares that according to its best judgement the annual consolidated financial statements for 2018 and the comparative data have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles currently in force, and give a true, fair and clear view of the financial position of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group and the profit for the period of the Group.
The Management Board’s report on the activities of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. and of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group in 2018 presents a true picture of the development and achievements, as well as the condition, of KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. and the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group, including a description of the basic exposures and risks.
The consolidated financial statements were authorised for issue and signed by the Management Board of the Parent Entity on 13 March 2019.
Note 1.2 Basis of preparation and presentation
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards as adopted by the European Union.
The accounting policies of the Group which apply to the consolidated financial statements as a whole, as well as significant estimates and their impact on amounts presented in the consolidated financial statements, are presented in the following note.
|Topic||Accounting policies||Significant estimates|
|Consolidation principles||The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Parent Entity and its subsidiaries. Subsidiaries are understood as being entities which are either directly controlled by the Parent Entity or indirectly through its subsidiaries.|
Obtaining control of a subsidiary, which is a business, is accounted for using the acquisition method.
Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is obtained to the date on which control is lost.
Balances, incomes, expenses and unrealised gains from intra-group transactions, recognised in assets, are eliminated.
|Determining whether the Parent Entity has control over a company requires an assessment as to whether it has rights to direct relevant activities of the company.|
Determining what constitutes relevant activities of the company and by which investor it is controlled requires a judgment.
Among others, the following factors are taken into consideration when assessing the situation and determining the nature of relationships: voting rights, relative voting power, dilution of voting rights of other investors and their ability to appoint members of key management personnel or members of the supervisory board.
|Fair value measurement||Fair value is the price that would be received from selling an asset or would be paid for a transfer of a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. For financial reporting purposes, a fair value hierarchy was established that categorises the inputs into three levels. The fair value hierarchy levels are as follows:|
|Fair value presents current estimates which may be subject to change in subsequent reporting periods due to market conditions or due to other factors. There are many methods of measuring fair value, which may result in differences in fair values.|
Moreover, assumptions constituting the basis of fair value measurement may require estimating the changes in costs/prices over time, the discount rate, inflation rate or other significant variables.
Certain assumptions and estimates are necessary to determine to which level of fair value hierarchy a given instrument should be classified.
|Financial statements of subsidiaries with a functional currency other than PLN||For purposes of preparing the consolidated financial statements in the presentation currency of the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group, i.e. in PLN, individual items of financial statements of foreign operations whose functional currencies are other than PLN are translated in the following manner:|
|The consolidated financial statements are presented in PLN, which is also the functional currency of the Parent Entity and the Group’s subsidiaries, with the exception of: the subsidiary Future 1 Sp. z o.o. and subsidiaries of the subgroup KGHM INTERNATIONAL LTD. in which the US dollar (USD) is the functional currency.|
The balance of exchange differences from the translation of financial statements of the aforementioned entities:
2018 – PLN 2 656 million,
2017 – PLN 2 818 million.
For a greater understanding of the data presented in the consolidated financial statements, important principles of measurement and accounting policies are presented in individual, detailed notes specified below:
|Note||Title||Amount recognised in|
the financial statements
|Accounting policies||Important estimates and judgements|
|2.3||Revenues from contracts with customers||20 526||20 358||X|| |
Impairment testing of the KGHM INTERNATIONAL LTD. Group’s assets
|(Recognition)/reversal of impairment losses|
|5.1||Income tax||(808)||(774)||X|| |
|5.1.1||Deferred income tax||(189)||42||X||X|
|5.3||Tax assets||417||277||X|| |
|5.3||Tax liabilities||(585)||(630)||X|| |
|6.1||Joint ventures accounted for using the equity method||4||8||X||X|
|6.2||Loans granted to joint ventures||5 199||3 889||X||X|
|7.3||Other financial instruments measured at fair value||541||673||X||X|
|7.4||Other financial instruments measured at amortised cost||716||762||X||X|
|8.2||Equity||(19 225)||(17 785)||X|| |
|8.4.1||Borrowings||(7 949)||(7 156)||X|| |
|8.5||Cash and cash equivalents||957||586||X|| |
|9.1||Mining and metallurgical property, plant and equipment and intangible assets||19 164||17 743||X||X|
|9.2||Other property, plant and equipment and intangible assets||3 013||2 888||X|| |
|9.4||Provisions for decommissioning costs of mines and other facilities*||(1 576)||(1 360)||X||X|
|10.1||Inventories||4 983||4 562||X||X|
|10.2||Trade receivables||961||1 522||X|| |
|10.3||Trade payables||(2 224)||(1 995)||X|| |
|11.1||Employee benefits liabilities||(3 225)||(2 905)||X||X|
|12.3||Other assets||514||576||X|| |
|12.4||Other liabilities||(1 632)||(1 693)||X|| |
* In the statement of financial position, current provisions for decommissioning costs of mines and other technological facilities are recognised in the item Provisions for liabilities and other charges.
The accounting policies described in this note and in individual notes were applied by the Group in a continuous manner to all presented periods with the exception of accounting policies and measurement arising from the application of IFRS 9 and IFRS 15 from 1 January 2018.
Note 1.3 Impact of new and amended standards and interpretations
The International Accounting Standards Board approved the following new standards for use from 1 January 2018:
- IFRS 9 “Financial Instruments”,
- IFRS 15 “Revenue from contracts with customers” and Amendments to IFRS 15, clarifying some of the standard’s requirements,
- Amendments to IFRS 2, clarifying the Classification and Measurement of Share-based Payment Transactions,
- Amendments to IFRS 4, clarifying the Application of IFRS 9 with IFRS 4,
- Amendments to IAS 40, clarifying when assets are transferred to, or from, investment properties
- Annual Improvements to IFRS Standards, 2014-2016 Cycle, clarifying the scope of IAS 28 and IFRS 1,
- IFRIC 22, clarifying Foreign Currency Transactions and Advance Consideration.
Up to the date of publication of these consolidated financial statements, the aforementioned amendments to the standards were adopted for use by the European Union and with the exception of IFRS 9 and IFRS 15, they will not have an impact on the Group’s accounting policy or on the consolidated financial statements.
Impact of application of IFRS 9 and IFRS 15 on the Group’s accounting policy and on the consolidated financial statements.
IFRS 9 Financial Instruments
The Group did not make early implementation of IFRS 9 and applied the requirements of IFRS 9 retrospectively for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018. In accordance with the possibility provided by the standard, the Group decided against the restatement of comparative data. Changes in the measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities, as at the date of initial application of the standard, were recognised in retained earnings. Implementation of IFRS 9 resulted in a change in accounting policy with respect to the recognition, classification and measurement of financial assets, the measurement of financial liabilities and impairment losses on financial assets.
Selected accounting policy
Measurement of financial assets and financial liabilities
As at 1 January 2018, the Group classifies financial assets to the following categories:
- financial assets measured at amortised cost,
- financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income,
- financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss, or
- derivative hedging instruments.
Classification is made upon initial recognition of a given asset. Classification of debt financial assets depends on the business model for financial assets management and on the nature of the contractual cash flows (SPPI test) for a given financial asset.
The Group classifies the following assets to the category assets measured at amortised cost: trade receivables (except for sold receivables subject to factoring agreements and trade receivables priced upon M+ formula, i.e. for which the final price is set after the end of the reporting period), loans granted which pass the SPPI test, other receivables, deposits and cash and cash equivalents.
Financial assets measured at amortised cost are stated at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method, less allowance for impairment. Trade receivables with a maturity period of up to 12 months from the receivable origination date (i.e. with no financing element), and which are not subject to factoring, are not discounted and are measured at nominal value. In the case of purchased or originated credit-impaired (POCI) financial assets at the moment of initial recognition, such assets are measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate adjusted for credit risk.
The following are classified to the category assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income:
1. financial assets, if the following conditions are met:
- they are held within a business model whose objective is to collect contractual cash flows due to holding and selling financial assets,
- the contractual terms give the right to receive cash flows on specified dates that are solely payments of principal and interest on the principal amount outstanding (i.e. the SPPI test was passed),
The impact of changes in fair value is recognised in other comprehensive income up to the moment of derecognition of an asset from the statement of financial position, when the accumulated profit/loss is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.
2. equity instruments which at initial recognition were irrevocably selected to be classified to this category. The selection option of measurement at fair value through other comprehensive income is not available for instruments held for trading.
Gains and losses, on both measurement and realisation of these assets, are recognised in other comprehensive income, with the exception of income on dividends received, which is recognised in the statement of profit or loss.
All financial instruments that were not classified as measured at amortised cost or measured at fair value through other comprehensive income, as well as those that the Group decided to classify as such in order to eliminate an accounting mismatch, are classified to the category assets measured at fair value through profit or loss.
The Group classifies the following to this category: trade receivables subject to factoring arrangements, trade receivables priced upon M+ formula, loans granted which did not pass the contractual cash flows test and derivatives which were classified as assets on the condition that they were not designated as hedging instruments.
Gains and losses on financial assets which are classified as financial assets measured at fair value through profit or loss are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they arise (including interest income and dividend income).
The following are classified to financial hedging instruments: financial assets and financial liabilities representing designated financial instruments and qualifying for hedge accounting, measured at fair value reflecting all market and credit risk components.
As at 1 January 2018, the Group classifies financial liabilities to the following categories:
- financial liabilities measured at amortised cost,
- financial liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss, or
- financial hedging instruments.
Liabilities measured at amortised cost include liabilities other than those measured at fair value through profit or loss (such as trade payables and bank and other loans), with the exception of:
1 - financial liabilities that arise when a transfer of a financial asset does not qualify for derecognition,
2 - financial guarantee agreements, measured at the higher of the following amounts:
- the amount of loss allowance for expected credit losses determined in accordance with IFRS 9;
- the amount initially recognised (i.e. at fair value increased by transaction costs that may be directly attributed to a financial liability) less cumulative revenue recognised according to IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers.
Liabilities measured at fair value through profit or loss include financial liabilities held for trading and financial liabilities designated at their initial recognition to measurement at fair value through profit or loss.
Financial liabilities held for trading include derivatives which are not designated for hedge accounting purposes.
Impairment of financial assets
IFRS 9 introduces a new approach to estimating losses on financial assets measured at amortised cost and measured at fair value through other comprehensive income (other than equity instruments). This approach is based on indicating expected losses, regardless of whether or not there have occurred any indications of impairment.
The Group applies the following models to determine impairment losses:
- the general model, and
- the simplified model.
Under the general model the Group monitors changes in the level of credit risk related to a given financial asset and classifies the financial asset to one of three stages of determining impairment losses:
Stage 1 – amount in respect of which there has not been a substantial increase in credit risk compared to an instrument’s initial recognition and for which the amount of impairment is estimated for 12 month expected credit losses,
Stage 2 – amount in respect of which there has been a substantial increase in credit risk compared to an instrument’s initial recognition and for which the amount of impairment is estimated for lifetime expected credit losses,
Stage 3 – amount reflecting impairment, for which the amount of impairment is set for lifetime expected credit losses.
Under the simplified model the Group estimates the expected credit loss up to the instrument’s maturity.
In order to estimate expected credit loss the Group makes use of the following:
- under the general model – default probability levels, forecasted based on market quotations of credit derivative instruments, for entities with a given credit rating from the given sector,
- under the simplified model – the historic levels of repayment of receivables and a two-stage approach (quality and quantity) to accounting for the impact of macroeconomic conditions on the recovery rates.
The Group considers default payment where the receivable balance is 90 days past due.
The Group accounts for forward-looking information in the applied parameters of the expected credit losses estimation model by adjusting the base probability of default ratios (for receivables) or by calculating probability of default parameters based on current market quotations (for other financial assets).
The Group applies the simplified model to calculate the allowances for impairment of trade receivables.
The general model is applied to the remaining types of financial assets, including debt financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income.
Impairment losses on debt financial instruments measured at amortised cost (at the moment of initial recognition and calculated for each successive day ending a reporting period) are recognised in other operating costs. Gains (reversals of impairment loss) due to a decrease in the expected amount of the impairment are recognised in other operating income.
For purchased or originated credit impaired assets at the moment of initial recognition (POCI), favourable changes in expected credit losses are recognised as gains due to the reversal of impairment losses in other operating income.
Impairment losses on debt financial instruments measured at fair value through other comprehensive income are recognised in other operating costs in correspondence with other comprehensive income, while not reducing the carrying amount of a financial asset in the statement of financial position. Gains (reversals of impairment loss) due to a decrease in the amount of the expected credit loss are recognised in other operating income in correspondence with other comprehensive income.
The Group decided to apply hedge accounting arising from IFRS 9 from 1 January 2018.
Hedges include fair value hedges, cash flow hedges and hedges of net investment in foreign operations.
The Group does not use either fair value hedges or hedges of net investments in foreign operations. Hedging instruments are designated as cash flow hedges.
In a cash flow hedge, a derivative used as a hedging instrument is an instrument which:
- hedges the exposure to volatility of cash flows and is attributable to a particular type of risk associated with an asset or liability recognised in the statement of financial position, or a highly probable forecast transaction, and
- will affect profit or loss in the statement of profit or loss.
Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of cash flow hedging instruments are recognised in other comprehensive income, to the extent by which the given instrument represents an effective hedge of the associated hedged item. Moreover, the Group recognises, in other reserves from the measurement of hedging instruments, the portion of the gain or loss on the hedging instrument arising from changes in the time value of options, forward elements and currency margin (cross currency basis spread), with the provision that with respect to the latter two elements, the Group may each time select the method of recognition (through equity or directly to profit or loss).
The ineffective portion of a hedge is recognised in profit or loss as other operating income or other operating costs (in the case of hedges of cash flows from operating activities), and as finance income or finance costs (in the case of hedges of cash flows from financing activities).
Gains and losses originating from cash flow hedges are recognised in profit or loss at the time when the underlying hedged item affects profit or loss.
In particular, with respect to the gain or loss arising from changes in the time value of options, the forward element or currency margin, the reclassification from equity (from other comprehensive income) to profit or loss (as other operating income or other operating costs for hedges of cash flows from operating activities, and as finance income or finance costs for hedges of cash flows from financing activities) is carried out on a one-off basis, if realisation of the hedged item is related to a transaction, or is amortised over the lifetime of a hedging relationship, if realisation of a hedged item is effected over time.
The Group applies the following requirements of effectiveness to a hedging relationship:
- there is an economic relationship between the hedged item and the hedging instrument,
- the effect of credit risk does not dominate the fair value changes of a hedged item or a hedging instrument,
- the hedge ratio is the same as that resulting from the quantity (nominal) of the hedged item that the Group actually hedges and the quantity (nominal) of the hedging instrument that the Group actually uses to hedge that quantity of hedged item.
The following table summarises the impact of IFRS 9 on the change in the classification and measurement of the Group’s financial instruments as at 1 January 2018.
(IFRS 7. 42I, 42J, 42O):
per IAS 39
per IFRS 9
|Carrying amount per IAS 39 - as at|
31 December 2017
|Carrying amount per IFRS 9 – as at|
1 January 2018
|Reference to explanations below the table|
|Available-for-sale financial assets (equity instruments)||Available for sale||Fair value through other comprehensive income||673||709||(a)|
|Loans granted||Loans and receivables||Fair value through profit|
|Loans granted||Loans and receivables||Amortised cost||3 892||3 892||(c)|
|Trade receivables - trade receivables subject to factoring arrangements and priced upon M+ formula||Loans and receivables||Fair value through profit|
|Trade receivables – subject to impairment allowance due to expected impairment||Loans and receivables||Amortised cost||740||723||(e)|
|Other receivables - receivables|
due to the present value of future payments respecting financial guarantees
|Loans and receivables||Amortised cost||67||100||(f)|
|Other liabilities - liabilities due to financial guarantees||Financial liabilities measured at amortised cost||Initially recognised fair value, increased by transaction costs and unwinding of the initial discount to the measurement date and decreased by the amount of income recognised in profit or loss||-||37||(f)|
The comments below concern the table summarising the impact of IFRS 9 on the change in classification and measurement of the Group’s financial instruments as at 1 January 2018.
a) This item is comprised of equity instruments not held for trading, in accordance with IAS 39 classified as available-for-sale, which were measured at fair value (listed) and at cost (unquoted) by the Group. Because these instruments were not purchased in order to be traded, by the Parent Entity’s decision, these assets will be measured at fair value through other comprehensive income, without the possibility of later transfer of gains or losses on these instruments to profit or loss. These equity instruments are presented in the financial statements in the item “Other financial instruments measured at fair value”.
b) This item is comprised of loans granted which did not pass the SPPI (solely payments of principal and interest) test, because in the structure of financing the target recipient of funds, debt is changed at the last stage into capital (the amount of capital is material) pursuant to the methodology of classification of financial instruments. Due to the above, these assets are measured at fair value through profit or loss. These financial instruments are presented in the financial statements in the item “Other financial instruments measured at fair value”.
c) This item is comprised of loans granted to joint ventures which have met two conditions: they are in a business model whose objective is to collect contractual cash flows due to holding financial assets, and have passed the SPPI test. They were classified to credit impaired financial assets at the moment of initial recognition and presented in the financial statements in the item „Loans granted to joint ventures”.
d) This item is comprised of trade receivables subject to non-recourse factoring agreements, which were classified to the held for sale (Model 3) business model, as well as trade receivables priced upon M+ formula, which did not pass the SPPI test because of the derivative embedded within the M+ pricing formula. Due to the aforementioned determinations, these trade receivables are measured at fair value through profit or loss. They are presented in the financial statements in the item “Trade receivables measured at fair value through profit or loss”.
e) For trade receivables held to obtain contractual cash flows (Model 1) that passed the SPPI test and are measured at amortised cost, in order to determine the expected impairment the Group applied the simplified model and estimated the amount of the expected impairment during the life of the asset, applying a delay payments matrix based on historical data, reflecting the requirements of the standard with respect to current and forecasted economic conditions. These trade receivables are presented in the financial statements in the item ”Trade receivables".
f) This item is comprised of guarantees granted to Sierra Gorda to secure its obligations arising from lease contracts and short-term bank loans. Receivables due to guarantees (passed SPPI test, assets held to acquire contractual cash flows) are measured at amortised cost and are recognised at the present value of future payments and then corrected by the unwinding of the discount effect and the amount of impairment due to expected credit losses in correspondence with the liability. The results of the measurement of financial guarantees are presented in the financial statements in the item “Other financial instruments measured at amortised cost”, while the liabilities are presented in the item “Other liabilities”.
With the exception of the aforementioned items of other financial assets and liabilities, there were no changes arising from changes in classification or changes in measurement of financial instruments.
The following table presents a reconciliation of impairment allowances estimated in accordance with IAS 39 as at 31 December 2017 with the amount of impairment allowances estimated in accordance with IFRS 9 as at 1 January 2018. Changes in impairment allowances estimated in accordance with IFRS 9 arise from a change in the classification of financial assets between the categories of financial assets measured at amortised cost and at fair value, as well as from the remeasurement of impairment allowances reflecting the requirements of the model of expected credit losses (IFRS 7.42P).
|Category of assets||Amount of allowance per IAS 39 – as at|
31 December 2017
|Change due to change in classification||Change due to change in measurement||Amount of allowance per IFRS 9 – as at|
1 January 2018
|Loans and receivables (IAS 39) / Financial assets at amortised cost (IFRS 9)|
|Loans granted||3 683||(3 683)||-||-|
|Total||3 730||(3 683)||17||64|
|Available-for-sale assets (IAS 39) / Financial assets at fair value through other comprehensive income (IFRS 9)|
|Available-for-sale financial assets||691||(691)||-||-|
IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers
The Group applied IFRS 15 from 1 January 2018, pursuant to paragraph C3 (b) and C7 – retrospectively, with joint effect of the first application of the standard as an adjustment of the opening balance of retained earnings in 2018.
Selected accounting policy
In accordance with IFRS 15, as at 1 January 2018 the Group recognises revenue from contracts with customers when a Group entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring a promised good or service to a customer, which is when the customer obtains control of that asset, i.e. the ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the asset, as well as the ability to prevent other entities from directing the use of, and obtaining the benefits from, the asset.
The Group recognises as a performance obligation every contractual promise to transfer to a customer a good or service that is distinct, or a series of distinct goods or services that are substantially the same and that have the same pattern of transfer to the customer. For each performance obligation, a Group entity determines (based on contractual terms), whether the obligation will be performed over time or at a specified moment.
Revenues from the sale of products, merchandise and materials are recognised in profit or loss once at a point in time when the performance obligation is satisfied (in particular in accordance with the applied INCOTERMS principles).
Revenues from the sale of services are recognised in profit or loss over time if one of the following criteria is met:
- the customer simultaneously receives and consumes the benefits provided by the Group entity’s performance to the extent that the entity performs its obligations,
- the Group entity satisfies a performance obligation and creates or enhances an asset (for example, work in progress) that the customer controls as the asset is created or enhanced,
- the Group entity’s performance creates an asset without an alternative use to the Group entity and the entity has an enforceable right to payment for performance completed to date.
The allocation of a transaction price to each performance obligation is made based on a relative stand-alone selling price basis.
Revenues arising from ordinary operating activities of the Group, i.e. revenues from sales of products, merchandise and materials are recognised in the statement of profit or loss as revenues from contracts with customers.
Revenues from contracts with customers are recognised in the amount of the transaction price (including any discounts granted and rebates).
The transaction price also reflects the effects of the time value of money if a contract with a customer contains a significant financing element, which is determined based on the contractual payment terms, regardless of whether the promise of financing is explicitly stated in the contract. In determining whether a financing component is significant for a given agreement, all of the facts and circumstances are taken into consideration, including the eventual difference between the promised payment and the cash sale price of the promised goods and services, as well as the total impact of the following two factors: (i) the estimated period from the moment an entity transfers the promised goods or services to a client to the moment the client pays for these goods or services, and (ii) interest rates on a given market.
In the case of a sales transaction for which the price is set after the date of recognition of a given sale, the revenue is adjusted at the end of each reporting period by any change in the fair value of the relevant trade receivables.
Sales revenue is adjusted for the gain or loss on the settlement of cash flow hedging derivatives, in accordance with the general principle that the portion of gain or loss on a derivative hedging instrument that is determined to be an effective hedge is recognised in the same position of profit or loss in which the gain or loss on the hedged item is recognised at the moment when the hedged item affects profit or loss.
Impact of the implementation of IFRS 15 on the consolidated financial statements
As part of the implementation of IFRS 15, the Group performed a comprehensive analysis of the impact of application of the standard on the consolidated financial statements.
While analysing the impact of IFRS 15, one so-called streaming arrangement was identified within the KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. Group (Contract with Franco Nevada), representing a source of financing available to companies operating in the mining sector, in the case of which the application of IFRS 15 has an impact on the method of recognition of revenues.
The implementation of IFRS 15 did not result in changes in the method of recognition of revenues from other contracts realised by the Group.
Contract with Franco Nevada
The contract (signed in 2008 between Quadra FNX Mining Ltd. and Franco Nevada) concerns the sale of half of the production of gold, platinum and palladium contained in the ore extracted during the lives of certain parts of deposits of the following mines: Morrison, McCreedy West and Podolsky (CGU Sudbury). Pursuant to the contract, Quadra FNX Mining Ltd. received a prepayment in the amount of CAD 400 million. Moreover, pursuant to the contract, the selling price for one ounce of gold equivalent is the lower of these two amounts: (a) a fixed amount for an ounce, increased by an indexation rate in each year, or (b) the market price of gold. The received prepayment covers the difference between the market price of ore sold and its fixed selling price.
Pursuant to IFRS 15, if the consideration set forth in a contract contains a variable amount, the Group estimates the amount of the consideration to which it will be entitled in exchange for transferring the promised good or service to the customer, and adds to the transaction price some or all of the amount of the variable consideration solely to the extent that it is highly probable that there will not occur a reversal of a substantial portion of the amount of the previously recognised accumulated revenue at a moment when uncertainty is removed as to the amount of the consideration.
In the contract with Franco Nevada the total transaction price is variable and depends on the amount of the raw material sold, and this in turn depends on ore extraction in the future throughout the life of the mine (including for example on the size of the deposit). Therefore, if in subsequent reporting periods the Group enacts any changes to the planned amount of ore to be extracted, and consequently to the amount of raw material sold, the transaction price will also be updated.
The Group recognises amounts related to satisfied performance obligations as revenue or as a decrease of revenue in the period in which the transaction price was changed.
Significant financing element
In the context of the contract with Franco Nevada, taking into consideration the expected period from the moment when prepayment is received to the moment when the Group transfers the promised good (the life of the mine, or several decades) and the nature of this contract, it was determined that the extension of payments over time provides benefits to the Group due to the financing of deliveries of raw material by the purchaser (Franco Nevada), and as a result the contract includes a significant financing element.
The Group presents the effects of financing (interest costs) separately from revenue from contracts with customers in the statement of profit or loss. Interest costs are recognised solely to the extent to which the liabilities related to the contract with Franco Nevada were recognised.
Impact of the application of IFRS 15 on items of the statement of financial position and the statement of profit or loss as at 31 December 2018
31 December 2018
per IAS 11, 18
Impact of IFRS 15
31 December 2018
per IFRS 15
|Consolidated statement of financial position|
|Other non-current liabilities||673||(76)||597|
|Other current liabilities||1 054||(20)||1 034|
|Deferred tax liabilities||446||54||500|
|Retained earnings||14 812||42||14 854|
|Consolidated statement of profit or loss||from 1 January 2018|
to 31 December 2018
per IAS 11, 18
|Impact of IFRS 15||from 1 January 2018|
to 31 December 2018
per IFRS 15
|Revenues from contracts with customers||20 479||47||20 526|
|Other operating income and (costs)||(295)||(21)||(316)|
|Income tax expense||(777)||(31)||(808)|
The main reason of changes disclosed in the above table is the recognition of a significant financing element arising from the contract signed between Quadra FNX Mining Ltd. and Franco Nevada.
The impact of implementation of IFRS 9 (disclosure of IFRS 7.42L) and IFRS 15 on the items of the statement of financial position as at 1 January 2018, for which there was a change in classification or measurement, is presented below.
Impact of the implementation of IFRS 9 Financial Instruments and IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with customers
|Applied standard IFRS/IAS||As at 31 December 2017|
|Change due to change in classification||Change due to change in measurement||As at 1 January 2018 Carrying amount||Impact on retained earnings||Impact on other comprehensive income||Impact on equity|
|Available-for-sale financial assets||IAS 39||673||(673)||-||-||-||-||-|
|Financial assets measured at fair value through other comprehensive income||IFRS 9||-||673||36||709||-||36||36|
|Retained earnings - accumulated impairment losses on available-for-sale financial assets||IAS 39||(691)||691||-||-||691||-||691|
|Other reserves from measurement of financial instruments||IFRS 9||-||(691)||-||(691)||-||(691)||(691)|
|Loans granted||IAS 39/ IFRS 9||3 909||(3 906)||-||3||-||-||-|
|Credit-impaired loans granted at the moment of initial recognition (POCI)||IFRS 9||-||3 889||-||3 889||-||-||-|
|Loans at fair value through profit or loss||IFRS 9||-||17||-||17||-||-||-|
|Trade receivables||IAS 39/ IFRS 9||1 522||(782)||(17)||723||(17)||-||(17)|
|Trade receivables measured at fair value through profit or loss||IFRS 9||-||782||16||798||16||-||16|
|Retained earnings – change in the time value of hedging instruments||IAS 39||(223)||223||-||-||223||-||223|
|Other reserves from measurement of hedging instruments||IFRS 9||-||(223)||-||(223)||-||(223)||(223)|
|Other receivables – receivables due to present value of future payments due to financial guarantees||IFRS 9||67||-||33||100||33||-||33|
|Other liabilities – liabilities due to financial guarantees||IFRS 9||-||-||37||37||(37)||-||(37)|
|Other non-current liabilities – liabilities due to Franco Nevada streaming contract||IFRS 15||410||-||(68)||342||68||-||68|
|Deferred tax on the aforementioned adjustments||-||-||(19)||(19)||(171)||152||(19)|
Note 1.4 Published standards and interpretations, which are not yet in force and were not applied earlier by the Group
In these consolidated financial statements, the Group did not decide for earlier application of the published standards, interpretations or amendments to already existing standards prior to their effective date. With the exception of IFRS 16 presented below, other changes are not applicable to the Group’s activities and will not have any impact on the consolidated financial statements.
Basic information on the standard
|Date of implementation and transitional rules|
|IFRS 16 will be effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2019 and has been adopted by the European Union. It supersedes the current standard IAS 17, interpretations IFRIC 4 and SIC 15 and 27. The Group will apply IFRS 16 from 1 January 2019.|
|Main changes introduced by the standard|
|The new standard introduces a single model for recognising a lease in a lessee’s accounting books, conforming to the recognition of a finance lease under IAS 17. Pursuant to IFRS 16, an agreement is a lease or contains a lease if it transfers the rights to control the use of an identified asset for a given period in exchange for compensation.|
The essential element differentiating the definition of a lease from IAS 17 and from IFRS 16 is the requirement to have control over the used, specific asset, indicated directly or indirectly in the agreement.
Transfer of the right to use takes place when we have an identified asset, with respect to which the lessee has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from its use, and controls the use of a given asset in a given period of time.
If the definition of a “lease” is met, the right to use an asset is recognised alongside a corresponding lease liability, set in the amount of future discounted payments – for the duration of a lease.
Expenses related to the use of lease assets, the majority of which were previously recognised in external services costs, will be currently classified as depreciation/amortisation and interest costs.
Usufruct rights are depreciated in accordance with IAS 16, while lease liabilities are settled using an effective interest rate.
The requirements of the new standard with respect to recognition and measurement by the lessor are similar to the requirements of IAS 17. A lease is classified as financial or operational, which is also in accordance with IFRS 16. Compared to IAS 17, the new standard changes the principles of classification of a sublease and requires the lessor to disclose additional information.
Impact of IFRS 16 on the financial statements
At the moment of preparation of these financial Statements the Group had completed the work related to implementation of the new standard IFRS 16. The project to implement IFRS 16 (project), was executed in three stages:
- stage I – analysis of all executed agreements for the purchase of services, regardless of current classification, the goal of which was to identify agreements based on which the Group companies use assets belonging to suppliers; in addition, this stage comprised the analysis of perpetual usufruct rights to land as well as land easements and transmission easements,
- stage II – the evaluation of each agreement identified in stage I in terms of its meeting the criteria to be recognised as a lease pursuant to IFRS 16,
- stage III - implementation of IFRS 16 based on the developed concept.
All agreements were subjected to analysis involving a finance lease, operating lease, rentals, leasing and perpetual usufruct rights to land as well as transmission easements and land easements. Also analysed were transactions involving purchased services (external service costs under operating activities) in terms of any occurrence of use of identified assets.
Under this project the Group carried out appropriate changes in accounting policy and operating procedures. Methods were developed and implemented for the proper identification of lease agreements and for gathering data needed in order to properly account for such transactions.
The Group decided to apply the standard from 1 January 2019. In accordance with the transition rules described in IFRS 16.C5 (b), the new principles will be applied retrospectively, and the accumulated impact of initial application of the new standard will be recognised in equity as at 1 January 2019. Consequently, comparable data for financial year 2018 will not be restated (the modified retrospective approach). At the moment of transition, the Group applied the practical expedient pursuant to which the Group entities were not required to reassess whether previously classified agreements contain a lease. The project which was undertaken during the implementation indicated that the new definition of a lease per IFRS 16 will not significantly change the scope of agreements meeting the definition of a lease.
Description of adjustments
a) Recognition of lease liabilities
Following the adoption of IFRS 16, the Group will recognise lease liabilities related to agreements which were previously classified as "operating leases" in accordance with IAS 17 Leases. These liabilities will be measured at the present value of lease payments due to be paid as at the date of commencement of the application of IFRS 16. For purposes of implementation of IFRS 16 and disclosure with respect to the impact of implementation of IFRS 16, discounting was applied using the lessee’s incremental borrowing rate as at 1 January 2019.
At their date of initial recognition, lease payments contained in the measurement of lease liabilities comprise the following types of payments for the right to use the underlying asset for the life of the lease:
- fixed lease payments less any lease incentives,
- variable lease payments which are dependent on market indices or market interest rates,
- amounts expected to be payable by the lessee under guaranteed residual value,
- the strike price of a purchase option, if it is reasonably certain that the option will be exercised, and
- payment of contractual penalties for terminating the lease, if the lease period reflects the lessee’s use of the option of terminating the lease.
For the purposes of calculating the discount rate under IFRS 16, the Group will apply an incremental borrowing rate reflecting the cost of financing which would be drawn to purchase the object of a given lease. To estimate the amount of the discount rate, the Group considered the following contractual parameters: the type and life of an agreement, the currency applied and the potential margin which would have to be paid to a financial institution to obtain financing.
As at 31 December 2018, the discount rates calculated by the Group was within the following ranges (depending on the life of the agreement):
- for PLN-denominated agreements: from 4.25% to 5.86%
- for EUR-denominated agreements: from 2.10% to 4.63%
- for USD-denominated agreements: from 5.42% to 6.08%
- for CAD-denominated agreements: from 4.70% to 5.75%
The Group makes use of expedients with respect to short-term leases (less than 12 months) as well as in the case of leases in respect of which the underlying asset has a low value (less than PLN 20 000) and for which agreements the Group will not recognise financial liabilities nor any respective right-to-use assets. These types of lease payments will be recognised as costs using the straight-line method during the life of the lease.
b) Recognition of right-to-use assets
Right-to-use assets are measured at cost.
The initial cost of a right-to-use asset comprises:
- the amount of the initial measurement of lease liabilities,
- any lease payments paid at the commencement date or earlier, less any lease incentives received,
- initial direct costs incurred by the lessee as a result of entering into a lease agreement,
- estimates of costs which are to be incurred by the lessee as a result of an obligation to disassemble and remove an underlying asset or to carry out renovation.
On the day of initial application, in the case of agreements previously classified as operating leases under IAS 17, right-to-use assets were measured by the Group at the amount equal to the lease liability, adjusted by the amount of any prepaid or accrued lease payments related to that lease, recognised in the statement of financial position directly preceding the date of the initial application of IFRS 16.
Following initial recognition, right-to use assets are depreciated under IAS 16 and are subjected to impairment testing pursuant to IAS 36.
c) Application of estimates
The implementation of IFRS 16 requires the making of certain estimates and calculations which effect the measurement of lease liabilities and of right-to-use assets. These include among others:
- determining which agreements are subject to IFRS 16,
- determining the remaining life of leases for agreements entered into before 1 January 2019 (including for agreements with unspecified lives or which may be prolonged),
- determining the marginal interest rates applied for the purpose of discounting future cash flows, and
- determining useful lives and the depreciation rates of right-to-use assets, recognised as at 1 January 2019.
d) Application of practical expedients
In applying IFRS 16 for the first time, the Group will apply the following practical expedients permitted by the standard:
- application of a single discount rate to a portfolio of leases with similar characteristics,
- assessment as to whether leases are onerous as defined by IAS 37 at the moment of implementation of the standard as an alternative to performing impairment testing of a leased asset,
- the treatment of operating lease agreements for which the remaining lease term is less than 12 months as at 1 January 2019 as short-term leases, and
- the use of hindsight (i.e. knowledge gained after the fact) in determining the lease period if the agreement contains options to prolong or terminate the lease.
e) Information on the financial impact of IFRS 16 on the consolidated financial statements in the period in which the Standard will be applied for the first time
As at 31 December 2018, the Group had non-cancellable, off-balance sheet operating lease liabilities in respect of the following agreements: perpetual usufruct of land, lease of land, lease of machines and equipment and other leases.
As at 31 December 2018, their notional amount of PLN 1 360 million (detailed information is presented in note 12.5 and in note 12.7), of which the amount of PLN 1 350 million concerns lease agreements and in accordance with IFRS 16 excludes short-term leases and the lease of low value assets.
For the aforementioned agreements, the Group measured the present value of assets used under these agreements and recognised, as at 1 January 2019, right-to-use assets in the amount of PLN 520 million and a corresponding lease liability in the same amount.
Off-balance sheet lease liabilities in the amount of PLN 1 360 million will be written-off.
In case of lease agreements which were previously classified as finance leases, the carrying amount of the right-to-use assets and lease liabilities as at 1 January 2019 will be equal to amounts measured in accordance with IAS 17.
In the case of agreements in which the Group companies are lessors, application of IFRS 16 will not necessitate the recognition of adjustments as at 1 January 2019.
Summary of the financial impact of the implementation of IFRS 16 (this only concerns lease agreements entered into or amended before 1 January 2019):
1 January 2019
|Right-to-use assets – property, plant and equipment||520|
|from 1 January 2019|
to 31 December 2019
|Estimated impact on the statement of comprehensive income:|
| - decrease in costs due to taxes, charges and services||(59)|
|- increase in depreciation/amortisation||30|
| - increase in interest costs||21|
|Estimated impact on the statement of cash flows:|
| - increase in net cash flows from operating activities||58|
| - decrease in net cash flows from financing activities||(58)|
It is estimated that the annual cost of short-term lease agreements and the annual cost of lease agreements for low-value assets is immaterial.
Other standards and interpretations published but not yet in force are not applicable to the Group’s activities nor will they have an impact. These are as follows:
- Amendments to IFRS 10 and IAS 28 with respect to the sale or contribution of assets between an investor and its associate or joint venture,
- IFRIC 23 interpretation on uncertainty over income tax treatments,
- IFRS 17 Insurance contracts,
- Amendments to IFRS 9 on debt financial assets with early repayment options, which could lead to the arising of a so-called negative compensation,
- Amendments to IAS 28 on long-term interests that form part of the net investments in associates and joint ventures,
- Annual improvements to IFRS Standards, 2015-2017 cycle,
- Amendments to IAS 19 on amendments, curtailments or settlements of plans of specified benefits,
- Revision of IFRS Conceptual Framework,
- Amendments to IFRS 3 on the Definition of a Business,
- Amendments to IAS 1 and IAS 8 on the Definition of Material.
The aforementioned standards, with the exception of IFRIC 23 and amendments to IFRS 9 are awaiting adoption by the European Union. The Group aims to apply all of the amendments at their effective dates.